What is Mediation?

by Aled Davies
July 17, 2024

What is Mediation in Simple Terms?

Mediation is a cost effective, voluntary and confidential process for resolving disputes of all kinds. Mediation helps to resolve commercial, family and workplace disputes and has a high success rate.

If you've ever had a dispute or disagreement with someone and have been unable to resolve it directly then mediation is a process that can often help bring an end to the dispute quickly and cost efficiently but it can also help to rebuild relationships that have broken down or fractured.

What is the Purpose of Mediation?

The primary purpose of mediation is to offer a confidential, efficient, and less adversarial alternatives to court proceedings, aiming to resolve disputes in a way that is acceptable and beneficial to all involved parties. Parties get to avoid going to court as they attempt to settle their dispute with the help of an independent and neutral person, called a mediator.

What is a Mediator?

A mediator is a neutral third party who is hired by the parties to conduct the mediation and manage the entire process. They help parties in dispute to find solutions that can lead to, if necessary, a legally binding agreement. Usually both parties in the dispute agree on the choice of mediator. The mediator's role will involve arranging a neutral location and managing the negotiations in a collaborative and flexible way.

mediator in law is a trained professional who facilitates dialogue and negotiation between disputing parties without making decisions or imposing solutions, helping them reach a voluntary agreement.

With the assistance of a mediator, parties in the dispute will get the opportunity to discuss with each other their concerns and the matters in dispute in a constructive and productive way.

Understanding Different Types of Mediation

This section will differentiate between various forms of mediation, explaining their specific applications and benefits.

What is Commercial Mediation?

Commercial mediation is a tailored approach to resolving business conflicts without resorting to lengthy court battles and formal processes. It serves as an effective mechanism in situations like partnership disputes, contractual disagreements, or intellectual property issues where commercial operators in dispute seek agreement on their dispute.

In commercial mediation, a professionally trained mediator helps parties explore mutually beneficial solutions, aiming to preserve professional relationships and confidentiality. This form of mediation is particularly valuable in the business world where a quick resolution can prevent financial loss and maintain business operations without disruption.

What is Civil Mediation?

Civil mediation addresses a wide range of non-criminal legal disputes that typically involve private parties or organisations. This includes conflicts over property rights, personal injury claims, employment disputes, and other civil liabilities. The process offers a less formal, more collaborative approach to conflict resolution, allowing parties to discuss their issues openly and work toward a customised solution. Civil mediation not only saves time and resources but also empowers individuals to have direct control over the outcome of their disputes.

What is Family Mediation?

Family mediation is a crucial tool in resolving disputes within the context of family law, such as divorce, child custody, and estate settlements. It provides a private, secure environment where family members can discuss sensitive issues with the guidance of a mediator. This process helps reduce the emotional strain often associated with family legal proceedings and encourages parties to focus on effective communication and negotiation. By fostering a cooperative rather than confrontational atmosphere, family mediation can lead to solutions that respect the interests of all parties, particularly those of any children involved.

The Mediation Process Explained

The mediation process is designed to provide an efficient and effective means of resolving disputes without the formalities of court proceedings. This process typically progresses through several well-defined stages, starting from the pre-mediation phase which is much like an initial consultation to the final agreement. Understanding these steps helps parties prepare for what to expect and can significantly influence the outcome of the mediation. Each phase of the process is crafted to build understanding and cooperation, with the mediator guiding the parties through constructive discussion to reach a satisfactory resolution.

What Happens Before the Mediation?

Before mediation begins, several preparatory steps are crucial to setting the stage for a successful mediation. Initially, the parties involved select a mediator, often based on their expertise relevant to the dispute or specialism. Once a mediator is chosen, pre-mediation statements are prepared by each party, outlining their perspective of the dispute and key issues to be addressed. These statements are shared with the mediator to provide a foundational understanding of the conflict. Preliminary agreements also play a critical role; these may include decisions about the rules of the mediation, confidentiality agreements, and logistical arrangements such as the time and place for the session. This preparatory phase is essential for ensuring all parties are informed, prepared, and committed to the mediation process.

What Happens During the Opening Phase of a Mediation?

Setting the Stage

The opening phase of a mediation session is pivotal as it establishes the framework in which the parties will attempt to resolve their dispute. The mediator begins by setting the stage. They will begin by outlining the the process, emphasising the important aspects such as the voluntary nature of mediation, and reinforcing the confidentiality of the discussions. The mediator also sets clear goals for the session, encouraging openness and respect throughout the proceedings. This stage is critical for building trust and rapport among the parties and the mediator, which facilitates a more open and productive dialogue.

Initial Statements

Following the initial stage, each party is given the opportunity to present their views and perspectives on their dispute without interruption. These initial statements are crucial as they allow each side to openly express their concerns and objectives, setting the tone for the mediation. This is not just about airing grievances; it's a chance for each party to be heard and understood, which can be therapeutic and pave the way for constructive negotiation. The mediator listens actively to these statements, gaining insights into the emotional and factual underpinnings of the dispute, which will guide the mediation strategy moving forward.

What Happens During the Exploration Phase of a Mediation?

The exploration phase of mediation is where the mediator and the parties delve deeper into the issues at hand. This stage is designed to unpack the complexities of the conflict and explore the underlying needs and interests of each party.

Gathering Information

During this part of the mediation, the mediator plays an active role in gathering more detailed information about the conflict. This is achieved through a series of targeted questions aimed at clarifying the issues and uncovering additional details that may not have been fully explored in the initial statements. The mediator asks open-ended questions, encouraging the parties to explain their perspectives and feelings about the dispute. This not only enhances the mediator’s understanding but also helps the parties to see the issues in a new light, which can be pivotal for finding resolutions.

Identifying Interests

After gathering sufficient information, the mediator guides the parties to identify and articulate their underlying interests and motivations. This process involves distinguishing between positions (what a party says they want) and interests (why they want it). For example, in a business dispute, a party may demand a certain sum of money (position), but their underlying interest could be to maintain cash flow or ensure business continuity. By focusing on interests rather than positions, mediation can uncover compatible areas that were previously obscured by conflicting positions, paving the way for mutually acceptable solutions.

What Happens During the Negotiation Phase of a Mediation?

The negotiation phase is the crux of the mediation process, where the groundwork laid in earlier stages comes to fruition. Here, the parties work collaboratively to forge a resolution that meets their interests. This phase often involves a combination of joint sessions involving everyone and also private sessions where the mediator spends time with each side teasing out interests and confidential information as they explore settlement options.

Exchanging Offers

During this stage, the parties begin to make offers and counteroffers. This dynamic process involves each party presenting proposals that move closer to meeting the needs of both sides. The mediator facilitates this exchange by helping to refine the proposals and making sure each side understands the implications of the offers. The mediator might suggest creative alternatives that the parties might not have considered, helping to expand the realm of possible solutions. This back-and-forth is a critical process where flexibility and willingness to compromise are key.

Narrowing Differences

As proposals are exchanged, the differences between parties begin to narrow. The mediator employs various techniques to bridge any remaining gaps, such as prioritising issues, identifying trade-offs, or exploring non-monetary solutions that can provide value to both parties. Techniques like "caucusing," where the mediator meets with each party privately, can also be used to explore sensitive options or to encourage parties to consider their best and worst alternatives to a negotiated agreement. This stage requires careful manoeuvring by the mediator to steer the parties towards a resolution that captures their essential needs while discarding less critical demands.

Key Aspects of Mediation

This section explores the fundamental elements and potential outcomes of the mediation process. Understanding these aspects can help parties better prepare for what to expect from mediation and assess its viability for their specific dispute.

What is a Mediation Agreement?

A mediation agreement is the culmination of a successful mediation process, where the disputing parties reach a mutually satisfactory resolution to their conflict. This agreement outlines the specifics of what was decided upon and is typically put into writing at the end of the mediation session. Legally, while the agreement itself can be binding if the parties decide so, the enforceability depends on the nature of the agreement and the legal framework in place. For instance, in some jurisdictions, mediation agreements require certain formalities to be enforceable in court. It's crucial for parties to understand that the strength of a mediation agreement lies in its ability to reflect a collaborative and agreed-upon solution, potentially avoiding the need for further legal enforcement.

Mediation Success Rate

The success rate of mediation varies widely depending on the context and the criteria used to define "success." Generally, studies suggest that mediation has a high success rate, with some reports indicating that around 70-80% of mediations result in agreement between parties. Factors that influence the success of mediation include the mediator's skill and experience, the willingness of parties to compromise, and the suitability of the dispute for mediation. Additionally, the timing of mediation can play a critical role; early intervention often leads to better outcomes by preventing escalation of the conflict.

Is Mediation Good or Bad?

Mediation offers several advantages over traditional litigation, making it a favourable option for many types of disputes. It is typically faster, less expensive, and less formal than court proceedings. Mediation also provides a confidential environment that can preserve personal or business relationships. Moreover, it gives parties more control over the resolution and allows for more creative solutions that legal judgments might not offer.

However, there are downsides to consider. Mediation may not be suitable for all disputes, especially those involving a clear legal right that needs to be established or where parties are unwilling to compromise. Additionally, the lack of a formal legal authority can be a drawback in cases where a binding decision is necessary. Thus, while mediation can be highly effective in the right circumstances, it is not a one-size-fits-all solution and requires careful consideration of the specific context and needs of the disputing parties.

Mediation in the UK

In the UK, mediation serves as a key component in the legal landscape, particularly highlighted by initiatives to increase its use in both civil and family law cases to reduce the strain on judicial resources and offer parties a more amicable resolution method.

The UK Judiciary has now introduced mandatory mediation for small claims civil disputes under the value of £10,000. A recent Court of Appeal ruling has also given judges greater powers to order parties to attempt mediation before coming back to court. These are all positive moves designed to increase the use of mediation in the UK and more countries around the globe will no doubt take note of these changes with interest.

Who Pays for Mediation in the UK?

In the UK, the cost of mediation is typically shared between the parties, although the specific arrangements can vary. For example, in civil cases, costs might be split equally or proportioned based on each party's financial situation. In family cases, legal aid might cover mediation costs for those eligible. The government also encourages mediation by offering incentives, such as reduced court fees for parties who attempt mediation before heading to litigation.

Critical Elements of Mediation

Effective mediation relies on certain methodologies and strategic elements that contribute significantly to its success. These elements facilitate a structured yet flexible negotiation environment.

What are the 3 Types of Mediation?

  1. Facilitative Mediation: The mediator structures a process to assist the parties in reaching a mutually agreeable solution, without suggesting or recommending options.
  2. Evaluative Mediation: The mediator plays a more active role by assessing the merits of each party's case and suggesting possible outcomes.
  3. Transformative Mediation: Focuses on repairing the relationships among the parties, often used in community and family disputes.

What are the 5 Steps of Mediation?

  1. Introduction and Ground Rules: The mediator introduces everyone, explains the goals and rules of the process.
  2. Statement of the Problem by the Parties: Each party presents their view of the dispute and its impact, without interruption.
  3. Information Gathering: The mediator asks questions to to tease out new information and clarify the issues.
  4. Identification of the Interests and Options: Parties explore various options that might address the problems at hand and the mediator helps them understand the interests at stake.
  5. Negotiation and Agreement Writing: Parties negotiate directly or through the mediator, and any agreement is put into writing.

What are the 4 Conditions of Mediation?

  1. Voluntariness: All parties must participate willingly, they can also exit the process anytime if it isn't working for them.
  2. Confidentiality: Information shared and discussions between parties including agreements reached during mediation must be kept confidential unless all parties explicitly agree otherwise.
  3. Neutrality: The mediator must be and act in an unbiased and impartial manner.
  4. Informed Decision-Making: All parties should have all the relevant information in order to make   decisions.

What Cases are Best Suited for Mediation?

Mediation is most effective in disputes where parties have ongoing relationships, such as business partnerships, workplace conflicts, or family disputes, and where emotional or personal matters are significant.

What is the Hardest Part of Mediation?

One of the hardest parts of mediation is getting parties to move beyond their entrenched positions and address the underlying interests. Overcoming emotional barriers and mistrust to reach a consensus can also be particularly challenging. However the first big hurdle to cross is agreeing to come to mediation in the first place

What is a Good Example of Mediation?

A classic example of successful mediation is when two business partners disagree on the future direction of their company but through mediation, they agree to restructure the business, allowing each partner to focus on their strengths while preserving their professional and personal relationship.

Benefits of Mediation

There are numerous mediation benefits including cost efficiency, speed, privacy, and the ability to craft creative, personalised solutions.  

Mediation Costs

The costs of mediation can vary based on the complexity of the case and the mediator's fees but are generally lower than litigation costs. Other mediation costs to bear in mind include the duration, location and of course whether the mediation takes place in-person or via video conference, the latter of course can greatly reduce the overall cost of the mediation.


Understanding the mediation process, its benefits, and when it is appropriate can empower individuals and organisations to make informed decisions about resolving disputes. This article has explored various facets of mediation to help clarify its role and effectiveness in different scenarios.